Caspian Lake

Article

January 27, 2022

The Caspian Sea (called the Khazar Sea by the Parsis and the Turkish peoples) is the largest lake on Earth, which is why some call it the Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море), between Europe and Asia, with an area of ​​371,000 km2. The northern part of the lake is shallow about 22 m, because it is filled with sediments of the Volga River, and the southern part is deeper, up to 995 m. The surface of the lake is 28 m below sea level (world ocean). The rivers Volga, Ural, Terek and Kura flow into the lake, but the inflow of fresh water is less than the amount of water that evaporates. The result is a negative water balance that is visible in the surface of the lake, which in 1930 was 442,000 km², and in 1980 368,000 km². The Caspian Lake is salty and in fact the sea is closed. Salinity varies from 0.05 ‰ at the mouth of the Volga to 11-13 ‰ in the southeast. However, this is only a third of the salinity of sea water. On the shores of the Caspian Sea there are countries: Russia (Republics of Dagestan and Kalmykia and Astrakhan Oblast) Iran (Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) Azerbaijan Turkmenistan Kazakhstan North and east of the lake are the steppes of Central Asia. On the east coast is Kara-Bogaz Gol Bay. The traffic on the Caspian Sea is well developed, and fishing is also important. The Caspian Basin is one of the world's largest oil and gas reserves.

Physical characteristics

Forming

The Caspian Sea, like the Black Sea, Namak Lake, and Lake Urmia, is a remnant of the ancient Parathetic Sea. Its complete encirclement by land occurred about 5.5 million years ago due to tectonic rising and falling sea levels. During warm and dry climates, the land-surrounded sea almost dried up, depositing evaporite sediments such as halite that were covered by wind-deposited deposits and sealed like evaporative depressions when cold, humid climates refilled the pool. (Comparable evaporative strata lie beneath the Mediterranean.) Due to the constant influx of fresh water, the Caspian Sea is a freshwater lake in its northern parts, and most of the salt is on Iran's shores, where the basin has a small tributary. Today, the average salinity of the Caspian Sea is at the level of one third of the Earth's oceans. Kara-Bogaz Gol Bay dried up when water from the main body of the Caspian Sea was blocked during the 1980s, but

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