January 21, 2022

Qatar (Arabic: Qaṭar قطر; IPA: / ˈqɑtˤɑr /, ext. / Vern .: / ɡɪtˤɑr /), officially the State of Qatar (Arabic: Dawlat Qaṭar دولة قطر), is an emirate in the Middle East located in the small Qatari Peninsula that is part of of the greater Arabian Peninsula. It borders Saudi Arabia to the south; otherwise, the Persian Gulf surrounds this country. According to the state system, Qatar is an absolute monarchy - an emirate. The capital is Doha. In the last century, according to the policy of Qatar, the Thani family has dominated, from which the current emir comes. After the end of the British protectorate in 1971, the country did not join the United Arab Emirates, choosing full independence instead. The most widespread religion in Qatar is Islam. Arabic or its local dialect is the language of the majority of the population. A large number of residents are foreign nationals working in the oil industry. Qatar's economy is dominated by the oil industry. Revenues from the sale of oil have enabled an increase in living standards and the introduction of a welfare state similar to those in Europe. GDP in 2014 was 145,894 US dollars per capita, measured by PPP, seven times more than 11 years ago. Qatar is the seat of the famous Arab TV station Al Jazeera. Lately, the country has been rapidly democratizing. Local elections were held for the first time in 1999, and elections for the Legislative Assembly are scheduled for 2016.


Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer, brought the earliest written document relating to the inhabitants of the peninsula around the middle of the 1st century AD. e. He calls them Catharrei, which is partly derived from the name of a local prominent settlement. A century later, Ptolemy drew the first map showing the peninsula as Qatar. The city of Ḱadara ', located in the eastern part of the peninsula, is also inscribed on the map. Until the 18th century, the name Qatar was used, after which the current name was adopted.


The oldest archaeological finds in Qatar date back to the 6th millennium BC. n. e. They were found in Sagra in southeastern Qatar. Later, throughout history, various nomadic tribes lived in Qatar, coming from various parts of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from the regions of Naid and Al Hasa. In time, settlements of fishermen and pearl hunters were formed, as the sea around Qatar is rich in pearl shells; it is one of the most important places

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