May 19, 2022

Catholicism or Roman Catholicism (Greek καθολικισμός; Latin catholicismus - "Catholicism") is a term that means the Christian religion, or denomination organized in the form of the Catholic Church. The term Catholicism encompasses all aspects of the existence and activity of the Catholic Church, starting from its theological teachings and ecclesiological doctrines, through liturgical and ritual practice, to various organizational, religious-political and religious-social aspects and moral principles. 1054), ie the separation of the Roman Church from the Ecumenical Orthodox Church. The main cause of the schism was the Western teaching of the double outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Filioque). After the final schism, the Orthodox Church retained its original Catholicism, while the Roman Church became known as the Catholic Church. The term Catholicism should not be confused with the term Catholicism, which refers to catholicity as one of the four characteristics of the Church.

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church consists of 23 separate churches - the Western Church and 22 Eastern Catholic Churches. At the head of the Catholic Church is the Roman bishop - the pope. He has absolute authority over the Church. He is assisted in the management of the Church by the authority of the Roman Curia. All bishops convened at the Ecumenical Council have the same authority. The basic administrative division of all autonomous churches is the division into dioceses, which in Eastern Catholic churches are called dioceses. The bishop in his diocese has mostly all authority, limited only by ecclesiastical law and papal authority.


The doctrine of Catholicism is based on the Bible and Holy Tradition, which includes certain rules of ecumenical councils. The basic rules are set out in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (lat. Catechismus Catholicae Ecclesiae), and all other canon law is systematized and set out in the Code of Canon Law.

Basic features

The Catholic Church has various doctrinal rules, some of which are common to other Christian denominations, and some specific to Catholics: faith in the direct and uninterrupted organizational heritage of the original Church founded by Jesus Christ; the belief that the Church is the bearer of the unity and totality of the teachings of Jesus and his apostles; use of sacred images, candles, muses