Colonialism

Article

May 19, 2022

Colonialism is a term that defines the practice where individual states expand their sovereignty outside their home territory through the establishment of colonies, ie dependent areas whose indigenous population is placed under direct rule or emigrated. Colonialism is also the name for the ideology that justifies such actions, most often through various religious and racial doctrines on the superiority of a particular religion, race or culture over the religions, races and cultures of the peoples and areas over which colonialism is pursued. The notion of colonialism is closely related but not identical to the notion of imperialism. In the 20th century, it gained pejorative significance, because it is associated with the oppression of Asian, African and Latin American peoples by European colonial powers. Three types of colonialism are known in history: Classical colonialism - leads to complete (political and economic) subordination of peoples and states. In order to achieve this goal, armed force was often used. After the free countries became colonies of other countries, they became a free source of raw materials and cheap labor, and the metropolis gained a new market for the export of goods and capital. Lately, classical colonialism has been falling apart. The process of decolonization did not develop equally fast in all parts of the world. North and South America were liberated in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Africa and Asia only in the 20th century. Neocolonialism - is a newer form of colonialism. It originated and developed in the 20th century. Its main bearers are highly developed countries. The essence of neocolonialism is that countries, to a greater or lesser extent, recognize political independence, but in the economic sense they are brought into a dependent position. The metropolis invests capital in the segment of production that it thinks will bring the fastest profit. This type of colonialism most often occurs between former colonies and the metropolis. With the emergence of neocolonialism, the exploitation of the natural resources of the world's poor countries continues. Technological colonialism - emerges as a form of dependence of one state on another, regardless of its power or military strength. Science is becoming the main carrier of technological progress, so all countries are striving for greater technological progress, so that they can sell their products on the already