Kingdom of Italy

Article

October 18, 2021

The Kingdom of Italy refers to Italy, which was ruled by the royal dynasty of Savoy from the unification of Italy in 1860 until the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of the republic in 1946. From 1922 to 1943, it was under the dictatorship of fascist leader Benito Mussolini. Although a winner in the First World War, Italy was affected by the economic crisis and dissatisfaction due to the absence of the reward for participation in the war promised by the London Agreement. Nationalism affects broad sections of the population. Benito Mussolini, previously engaged in the labor movement, began to found fascist detachments named after the Latin facsio, which means bundle and is a symbol of harmony. At the beginning, Mussolini also spoke about democratic freedoms and workers' rights at the fascist speeches. Later, the fascists switched to physical confrontations with the socialists and communists. In the elections of 1919, they received only 4,000 votes, but two years later they had 36 deputies out of a possible 500. In the following years, this movement became massive. The members wore black shirts (black shirts), and the methods of work were street manifestations, words, beatings, and even the murder of political opponents. In 1921, the fascists were united in the National Fascist Party. In October 1922, Benito Mussolini and the fascists took power in Italy. About 24,000 members of the Italian fascist party marched from Naples to Rome to take power. Their leader, Benito Mussolini, was waiting for the outcome in Milan, ready to flee to Switzerland if the coup fails. As there was no opposition in Rome, King Victor Emmanuel III offered Mussolini to form a government. In the following years, the fascists abolished democracy in Italy, all other parties except the fascist one were banned from working, a special court for the protection of the state was established, and the workers were forbidden to strike. Mussolini himself received the title of Il Duce (literally "leader") and became an inviolable figure in the country. In 1935, Italian forces attacked the independent African state of Ethiopia with the help of planes, chemical weapons and armored vehicles. The League of Nations imposed economic sanctions on Italy, but they did not have much success. Italy leaves the League of Nations in 1937. The Italian king was proclaimed emperor of Abyssinia, as the Italians called the newly conquered state. Ethiopia

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