Kingdom of Hungary

Article

January 22, 2022

The Kingdom of Hungary (Latin: Regnum Hungariae, Hungarian: Magyar Királyság, German: Königreich Ungarn) was a monarchy in Central Europe, which existed from the Middle Ages to the 20th century (1000-1918). The Principality of Hungary was established as a Christian kingdom with the coronation of the first King Stephen I in Ostrogon around 1000; his family (Arpad dynasty) was the head of the monarchy for 300 years. From the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power in the Western world. During the Ottoman occupation of central and southern Hungary in the 16th century, the country was divided into three parts: the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Kingdom of Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania. The Habsburgs were on the Hungarian throne from the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and played a key role in the wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, the territories associated with the Hungarian crown became part of Austro-Hungary under the name of the Crown Land of St. Stephen. The monarchy ended with the overthrow of Charles IV in 1918, when Hungary became a republic. The kingdom was nominally renewed during the "Governorship" from 1920 to 1946, when the Soviet occupation began. The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its founding until the Treaty of Trianon and included the area of ​​today's Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and other countries with which Hungary today shares a state border. From 1102, it included Croatia, which was in a personal union with it, united under the Hungarian king.

Names

In the late Middle Ages, the Latin terms lat. Natio Hungarica and lat. Hungarus referred to all the nobles of the kingdom. The notion of Hungarus, loyalty and patriotism above ethnic origin existed among the inhabitants of the Hungarian kingdom. According to István Werbőczy, the writer of the Tripartite, the name of the Hungarian Nation was borne only by nobles, regardless of nationality, who were subjects of the Holy Crown. Latin name lat. Regnum Hungariae / Vngarie, regnum - kingdom, or simply Hungary (Hungaria) was a form used as a name in historical documents, speeches, letters from the very beginning of the Kingdom of Hungary until 1840. German name mute. Königreich Ungarn, began to be used from 1849 until 1860. The Hungarian name mađ. Magyar Királyság, was officially used in the 1940s 19.

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