Kublai Khan


January 22, 2022

Kublai Khan (Mongolian Hubilai Khan; Chinese: 忽必烈; ​​Pinyin: Hūbìliè; 1215-1294) was the last Grand Khan of the Mongol Empire (1260-1294) and the founder and first emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. Kublai was the fourth son Toluja (his second son from Sorhahtani Beki) and the grandson of Genghis Khan. He was almost 12 years old when Genghis Khan died and succeeded his older brother Mongko as kagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Arig Buk in the Toluida Civil War which lasted until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of the fragmentation of the empire . Kublai's real power was limited to the Yuan Empire, although as a kagan he still had influence in Ilkanat and, to a much lesser extent, in the Golden Horde. If the Mongol Empire is viewed as a whole at the time, its empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to present-day Afghanistan. ; he also gained influence in the Middle East and Europe as a kagan. He took on the role of Chinese emperor. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song Dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first Nehan king to unite all of China. Imperial Kublai's portrait was part of the album of portraits of Yuan emperors and empresses, which is now in the collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei. White, the color of the royal costume of Kublai, was the royal color of the Yuan dynasty.

Childhood and youth

Kublai Khan was Tolu's fourth son, and his second son from Sorhahtani Beki. As his grandfather Genghis Khan advised, Sorgagtani chose a Buddhist Tangut woman as his son's nanny, whom Kublai later held in high esteem. On his way home after the Mongol conquest of Quarsmia, Genghis Khan performed a ceremony on his grandchildren Mongki and Kublai after their first hunt in 1224 near the Ili River. Kublaj was nine years old and killed a rabbit and an antelope with his older brother. After his grandfather smeared fat from slaughtered animals on Kublai's middle finger in accordance with Mongolian tradition, he said: "The words of this boy Kublai are full of wisdom, listen to them well - listen to them all." The old kagan (Mongol emperor) Genghis Khan would have died three years after this event in 1227, when Kubl�

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