Latin language


November 28, 2021

Latin (lat. Lingua latīna) is a classical language that belongs to the Italian branch of Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet originated from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets. Latin was originally spoken in the Lazio area. Through the power of the Roman Republic, Latin became the dominant language, first in Italy and then throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into Romance languages, such as Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. Latin, Italian and French gave many words to English. Ancient Greek and Latin are used as the languages ​​of science in theology, biology and medicine. In the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin was standardized into classical Latin. Vulgar Latin was a colloquial form of speech at the same time and this is confirmed in records and works such as the works of Plautus and Terence. Late Latin has been a written language since the 3rd century, and medieval Latin was in use from the 9th century until the Renaissance period when Renaissance Latin was used. Later, early modern Latin and modern Latin developed. Latin was used as the language of international communication, education and science until the late 18th century, when it began to be replaced by the vernacular. Church Latin has survived as the official language of the Holy See and the Roman rite of the Catholic Church. Today, many students, scholars, and members of the Catholic clergy are fluent in Latin as a liturgical language. It is taught in primary, secondary and higher education institutions around the world. Heritage Language is transmitted in various forms.


Some inscriptions have been published in internationally agreed, monumental series with several volumes, "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL)". Authors and publishers vary, but the format is roughly the same: volumes detailing critical inscriptions stating the origin and relevant information. The reading and interpretation of these inscriptions is the subject of the field of epigraphy. About 270,000 inscriptions are known.


The works of several hundred ancient authors who wrote in Latin have been preserved in whole or in part. These are significant works or fragments for philological analysis. They are part of the subject area of ​​the class field

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