January 27, 2022

Mongolia (Mongolian: ong, Mongol Uls), is a country in East Asia, which borders Russia in the north and China in the south, the capital is Ulaanbaatar. In older documents, the name Outer Mongolia can also be found (unlike Inner Mongolia, which as an autonomous region is part of China). Until the change of the Constitution in 1992, it was called the People's Republic of Mongolia. Mongolia is a member of the UN and has observer status in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. With 1,564,116 km2, Mongolia is the 18th largest and least populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of about three million people. It is also the second largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan and the largest such country that does not border the closed sea. The land contains very little arable land, as most of it is covered by grassy steppes, with mountains in the north and west and the Gobi Desert in the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar also shares the rank of the coldest capital in the world with Moscow, Ottawa and Nur Sultan.


Even in ancient times, Mongolia was inhabited almost exclusively by nomadic pastoralists due to the unrealistically harsh climate; in that large country there were only sporadically smaller settlements of Samoyeds and Uighurs, as well as some under Chinese influence. Even at that time, there were attacks by certain tribes on China and on the Silk Road, which passed west through Central Asia. In the Middle Ages, Genghis Khan (1155-1227) managed to unite the Mongol tribes into a state that ruled the world empire for several centuries, which in 1240 reached as far as Central Europe. His grandson Kublai Khan (d. 1294 in Beijing) founded the Yuan dynasty in China, and transferred the right to rule Tibet to Buddhist priests. After several periods of weakness around 1400, a great empire was re-created under Timur Lenk, which later between 1690 and 1757 passed to the Chinese Qing dynasty. After its collapse in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, but (despite Russian aid) it lasted until 1921 that Chinese forces (northern militarists) were finally expelled from the country. In 1924, the People's Republic of Mongolia was proclaimed, and it became a satellite country of the Soviet Union. In the ambition of the Soviet leadership to make Mongolia modern �

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