National park

Article

July 5, 2022

A national park is an area of ​​land, often owned by the state in which it is located, largely protected from human influence. National parks are a protected area of ​​the International Association for the Protection of Nature — Category II. As a term, it was defined for the first time in the area of ​​Yellowstone (English: Yellowstone) in the USA, in 1872 on an area of ​​888,708 hectares. In Europe, the first such park was established in Sweden, and then in 1909 in the Swiss Engadin. On the territory of (former) Yugoslavia, the first park was established in 1924 in the valley of the Triglav Lakes. In the meantime, other national parks were established with the aim of protecting and studying natural entities. According to data from the 1990s, there are 1,500 national parks or reserves with an appropriate level of protection in the world.

Size and Types

A national park can occupy an area of ​​different sizes — from several million hectares in the USA, Canada and Russia, to several thousand hectares in Europe. In Serbia, the minimum area is 3,000 ha. In 1992, the World Congress on National Parks was held in Caracas, when a recommendation was adopted that each country should protect at least 10% of its territory. About 3% is protected in Serbia, and 9.7% in Montenegro. At the tenth General Assembly of the UICN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), which was held in 1969 in New Delhi, a definition of a national park was given, the main determinants of which are: that it is a wider spatial area that represents one or more ecosystems little or not at all changed by human activity or settlement, to which animal and plant species, geomorphological elements and plant and animal habitats give special scientific, educational and recreational importance or in which there are natural landscapes of great beauty National parks can be classified into at least two types: American and European. The American type corresponds to the first Yellowstone park that was formed for tourism and recreation of citizens, while the European type corresponds to Engaden Park in Switzerland, it has the characteristics of a reserve. In reserves, the living world develops and lives completely freely, and is only protected from any human influence. The national parks in our country correspond to the European type, i.e. the reserve model, and at the same time tourism is intensively developed in them with all the accompanying developments from the construction of facilities to