Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is a recognition of special merits in the fields of unification of nations, disarmament or reduction of world or regional military potentials, political and other education as well as the holding of peace conferences. This prize, like other Nobel prizes, is a donation of the Swedish inventor and manufacturer Alfred Nobel, and since 1901 it has been awarded every year on December 10 in Oslo, the day of his death.
This award was first mentioned in the will of the deceased Alfred Nobel in 1896, in which he regulated his inheritance, which amounted to about 31 million Swedish kroner. That money was given to a special endowment, which was managed by a council of 6 directors. The Nobel Prizes are formed from the interest on the endowment funds, divided into 5 equal parts, for each Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize for Economics was not mentioned in this will. It is awarded in memory of Alfred Nobel, by the same procedure, but not from endowment funds, but from the Swedish Bank for Economic Sciences. Unlike other prizes that are awarded in the Swedish capital Stockholm, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in the Norwegian capital.
The committee that decides the winner consists of five members elected by the Norwegian parliament. Members are elected for six years. The composition of the board reflects the balance of power of the political parties in the Norwegian Parliament. Since 1936, a rule has been adopted that members of the Norwegian government cannot also be members of the Nobel Committee. During 1977, a rule was added that active members of the Norwegian Parliament also cannot be elected to office on the board. Although it is not stipulated anywhere that the members must be of Norwegian nationality, to date all committee members have been Norwegian.
Nomination and Awarding
Proposals for Nobel Peace Prize laureates, apart from committee members and former laureates, can be submitted by all members of the government or the International Court of Justice, professors at the departments of sociology, history, philosophy, law and political science, as well as heads of the respective institutes.
Unlike the others, the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to participants in certain peace negotiations even though they did not lead to a final solution, i.e. until