Orangutans (lat. Pongo) are a genus of great apes known for their intelligence, long arms and red fur. Originally from Indonesia and Malaysia, only the rainforests of the islands of Borneo and Sumatra inhabit, although fossils from Java, Vietnam and China have been found. There are three living species from the genus Pongo and the subfamily Ponginae.
The word orangutan comes from the words of the Malay and Indonesian languages orang which means "person, man" and hutan which means "forest", therefore orang hutan means "forest man". The local Malay population calls the orangutan Maias and mawas.
The word was first confirmed in English in 1691 in the form of orang-outang.
The name of the genus Pongo comes from the 16th century by the English sailor Andrew Batel who describes two human-like creatures like Pongo and Engeco at a place at the mouth of the Congo River. Today it is believed that he described gorillas, while in the 18th century they believed that orangutans were all great apes.
Orangutans spend most of their time in the trees, that is, in the canopy where they mate, feed and sleep. Only males occasionally descend to the ground in search of fruits and other food. Every night, orangutans make a nest of leaves and branches in which they will sleep. They are less sociable than other monkeys, and males and females meet only during mating, while adolescent females sometimes move together through the woods for 2-3 days. Mothers stay with the cub until it is six to seven years old. Sexual dimorphism is present in orangutans: females are 1.3 meters tall and weigh about 45 kilograms, while mature adult males can be 1.8 meters tall and weigh over 118 kilograms. . Adult males have conspicuous large cheeks and longer hair. They announce their position with a long roar. With its long legs with a span of up to 2.2 meters and feet that can hold the branches, it is perfectly adapted to life in the canopy. His legs are very flexible, and the root of his hand, feet, hips and shoulder joints can rotate in all directions.
Unlike other great apes, orangutans are most often solitary in the canopy of trees in rainforests, where they spend most of the day. The largest inhabitants of trees are among non-flying mammals. They can be found in the wetland forests of coastal areas as well as in the forests of hilly areas up to 1,500 m above sea level.