Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and extending to the wider Middle East and Central Asia. It borders Iran, Afghanistan, China, India and exits to the Arabian Sea. In terms of population, it is the 6th most populous country, with a population of over 200 million, and is the second largest Muslim country after Indonesia in the world. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Organization for Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, and since 2015 a full member of the SCO.
Origin of the name
The name Pakistan in Urdu and Persian means the land of the pure. Chodhari Rahmat Ali came up with the name in 1933 and published it in the pamphlet Sad ili nikad. It is actually an acronym for the names of the Muslim territories of West India - P for Punjab, A for Afghanistan, K for Kashmir, S for Sindh and -tan for Balochistan (province in Pakistan). The conjunction I was added later, because istan in Urdu means earth, while pure means pure. The country was named Pakistan in 1947, while the current name, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, has been in use since 1957.
Pakistan covers an area of 803,940 km². The eastern region of Pakistan is located on the Indian tectonic plate, while the western and northern parts are located on the Iranian and Eurasian plateaus. Pakistan has a 1,046 km long maritime border in the Arabian Sea, while the total land border is 6,774 km (2,430 km with Afghanistan, 523 km with China, 2,912 km with India and 909 km with Iran).
Geology and relief
Pakistan is a geographically diverse country. In the south there are valleys and plains, sandy beaches and a pleasant climate, while in the north there is the Himalayan chain with peaks over 8,000 m high. Pakistan has about 108 mountain peaks over 7,000 m and five peaks over 8,000 m (K2 and Nanga Parbat). The Indus River flows through Pakistan. The northern part of the country is a very attractive tourist destination and a mecca for hikers. To the west of the Indus is the province of Balochistan with a dry climate and green valleys, while to the east are the sand dunes and the Tar desert in the Tarparker area.
The Tar Desert (Urdu تھرپارکر) in the southern province of Sind j