Parma

Article

May 28, 2022

Parma (Italian: Parma) is a famous city in Italy. Parma is also the second largest city in the province of Emilia-Romagna in the northern part of the country and the capital of the district of the same name. Parma is famous for its architecture and strong tradition of agriculture and food industry. The University of Parma is one of the oldest in Italy. There is FC Parma here.

Origin of the name

The name of the city is associated with the name of the ancient Roman shield - Parma. Originally, it was called a stream, which today divides the city into two parts, and which is so small that it dries up for most of the year.

Geography

Parma is located at the crossroads from central to northern Italy. The city is 470 km north of the capital Rome and 125 km southeast of Milan.

Relief

Parma developed in the southern part of the Po Valley. The city is in the plains, but the extreme northern mountains of the Apennines are relatively close to the city - 25 km south. The city stretches at a height of 57m.

Climate

The climate in Parma has changed the continental climate with a noticeable influence from the Mediterranean to the sea. Therefore, it is very warm in summer, and snow is common in winter and it is very cold compared to most of southern Italy.

Water

Parma is located on the stream of the same name, which is so small that it often dries up. The Po River, as the first major river, is located 20 km north of the city.

History

The city was most likely founded by the Etruscans. The Latin term for round shield is Parma. The Romans replaced the rectangular shields with round ones, following the example of the Etruscans. The Roman colony was founded in 183 BC. n. e. together with Modena. 2,000 families settled there. The city was destroyed in 44 BC. n. e., and Octavian Augustus rebuilt it. The Hun leader Attila plundered the city and later belonged to Odoacer. Totila destroyed it during the Gothic War. It became part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna, and since 559 it has been part of the Lombard Kingdom. During the Middle Ages, Parma became important on the main road that connected Rome with northern Europe. Several castles, hospitals and inns were built to accommodate the numerous pilgrims on their way to Rome. Parma came under Frankish rule in 774. Like most other cities in present-day northern Italy, it was nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, and was actually ruled by local bishops. During the battles of the popes and emperors, Parma was usually on