January 21, 2022

Surface is a geometric term that means a measure of the size of a geometric image in Euclidean two-dimensional space. The point and the line have no surface, ie their surface is zero. On the other hand, a plane has an infinite surface. The surface is also the part of the body in the space that is exposed to the outside. The measurement of surfaces was practiced by the ancient Egyptians, but it was only raised to the level of science by the ancient Hellenes. In them, the area of ​​a geometric image was calculated by transforming it into a square of the same area through a series of transformations. Then the sides of the square are measured and the area is easily calculated. Since those days, the calculation of the area has received another name: squaring. Surface is the quantity that describes the extent to which a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, is flat. Surface is its analogous concept on a two-dimensional surface of three-dimensional shape. The surface can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be needed to train the shape model, or the amount of paint needed to cover the surface with a uniform coating. It is a two-dimensional analogue of the length of a curve (one-dimensional concept) or the volume of a solid body (three-dimensional concept). In the SI system, the standard unit of area is a square meter (written as m²), which is the area of ​​a square whose sides are one meter long. A shape with an area of ​​three square meters would have the same area as three such squares. In mathematics, the unit of a square is defined to have an area of ​​one, and an area of ​​any shape or surface is a dimensionless real number. There are several well-known formulas for smaller surfaces such as triangles, rectangles and circles. Using these formulas, the area of ​​each polygon can be found by dividing the polygon into triangles. For shapes with curved borders, the calculus is often used to calculate the area. Indeed, the problem of determining the surface of flat figures was a greater motivation for the historical development of calculus (mathematical analysis). For a solid shape such as a sphere, cone or cylinder, the surface of their surfaces is called the surface area. formulas for surfaces of simple shapes were calculated in the time of the ancient Greeks, but the calculation of the area of ​​more complicated shapes

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