January 21, 2022

Portugal, or Portugal (Portuguese: Portugal), officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa), is a country in the west and southwest of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, and is the westernmost country in continental Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east, and to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, Portugal includes two archipelagos in the Atlantic, the Azores (Açores) and Madeira (Madeira). The capital is Lisbon, and the official language is Portuguese. For the culture of Portugal, fado music is characteristic, and the most famous singers are Amalia Rodrigues and Mariza, who performed in Belgrade and around the world. Portuguese food is based on fish, tuna and rice, risotto. This country is known for its wines, cheeses, as well as oranges. Portuguese colonial architecture is present in various parts of the world, mostly in Brazil, Indonesia and Macau. Belem Tower, St. George's Fortress and Pedro Square IV are examples of Portuguese architecture.


Throughout history, many nations and civilizations have passed through Portugal: the Iberians, Celts, Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Greeks, Germanic tribes (All Saints and Visigoths) and Moors have left their mark on this culture in this country. The name Portugal itself reveals parts of the country's early history - it derives from the Roman name Portus Cale, a possible mixture of Greek and Latin names meaning "Beautiful Port", or even a mixture of Celtic and Latin, or a mixture of Phoenician and Latin. Portugal, as an independent state, first appeared during the Middle Ages (1179), and increased and expanded its influence during the 15th and 16th centuries, at a time of great geographical discoveries becoming a major economic, political and cultural power and creating a great Portuguese Empire which stretched from Brazil, through Africa, India and China, to East Timor in Indonesia. Portugal was a world power at the time of the discovery, because Portuguese sailors discovered the sea route to America, Africa, India and the Far East. Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India in 1497, Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil on his way to India in 1500, and Fernando Magellan led a Spanish expedition that was the first (1519-1522) to sail around the world. At the end of the 16th century (1580), Portugal was the first country

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