January 21, 2022

Poland (Polish: Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe. Geopolitically, it belongs to Eastern Europe and borders the Russian exclave in the Kaliningrad region) and Lithuania in the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine in the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in the south and Germany in the west, while in the north it faces the Baltic Sea. Poland is a member of the European Union and NATO. The total area of ​​Poland is 312,679 km2, which makes it the 69th largest in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. More than 38 million people live in Poland, making it the 34th in the world and the 8th in Europe. The year of the founding of Poland is 966, when its ruler, Prince Mieszko I, accepted Christianity. In 1569, with the conclusion of the Lublin Union, the Kingdom of Poland entered into a long-term alliance with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which established the powerful and vast State Union of Poland and Lithuania. The community disappeared in 1795, and the territory of Poland was divided by Prussia, the Russian Empire and Austria. Poland regained its independence in 1918 after the First World War, only to lose it again in the Second World War. Poland lost about 6 million citizens in the war, and came out of the war within significantly changed borders. The post-war People's Republic of Poland was within the Eastern Bloc, under strong Soviet influence. During the 1989 revolutions, communist rule was abolished. Poland is a unitary state, consisting of 16 duchies.

Etymology of the name

The name Poland comes from the Poljana tribe, which inhabited the territory of today's Wielkopolska. The word Polanie can be interpreted as "those who live in the fields". It can be assumed that the main occupation of that tribe was agriculture, while with other tribes, e.g. Vislana and Mazovia were different because they inhabited forest areas. In the past, the Latin terms terra Poloniae - Polish land or Regnum Poloniae - Polish Empire were used. The name Poland (Polska) began to be used in the 11th century. In the 14th century, the land of Poljana was called Staropolska (Staropolska), and later Wielkopolska (Wielkopolska). Due to the contrast, the southern countries were called Małopolska. Other names of Poland: (Lechia, Persian language Lachistan, Lithuanian Lenkija) and Poles (Russian: Лях, Hungarian: Lengyel) come from the names of the tribe Leđan, which are believed to have lived in the present southwestern part of Poland.

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