Polish language

Article

January 21, 2022

Polish (Polish: język polski or polszczyzna) together with the following languages: Czech, Slovak, Pomeranian (whose Kashubian dialect is often thought to be a Polish dialect), Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian and extinct Polapian belongs to the group of West Slavic languages part of Indo-European languages. Polish is the mother tongue of about 50 million people in the world, of which mostly people in Poland and among Poles living outside Poland.

History

For the history of the Polish literary language, see the article History of the Polish literary language.

Zapis o istoriji fonetike

The Polish language originated from the pre-Indo-European language. The most important early changes are Indo-European palatalization. The former soft k, kh, g, gh changed to s and z in "satem" languages ​​such as Proto-Baltic Slavonic, while in "kentum" languages ​​such as Latin and Germanic languages ​​it changed to w, k and g. In the Proto-Slavic language, all closed syllables became open. This resulted in the formation of new nasal vowels and differences in the length of vowels. Opposition to soft and hard consonants has also taken shape In Polish, the syllabic r and l became vowels + r or the corresponding l. The disappearance of homonyms also occurred, and many soft vowels changed to hard ones, for example soft r changed to ż (it is written rz). Many soft consonants lose their softness in pronunciation (eg soft w at the end in Wrocław type names, in dependent cases it still remains soft Wrocławiu). Influence of foreign languages ​​ The modern Polish language originated from the dialects used in Wielkopolska and Małopolska to a lesser extent in Mazowsze and other regions. The Polish language was also influenced by other languages. The most important among them were: German Czech Latin Italian French Russian EnglishAlso Ukrainian language in the border zone. Currently, the great influence of the English language on the Polish language can be noticed.

Dialects

in Polish the following stand out: literary language (cultural dialect) folk dialects city ​​dialects (eg Lviv dialect, Poznan dialect, Warsaw dialect) speech of a certain environment (eg prison speech (as in our country tent or slang)) The basic dialects of the Polish language are: Silesian (śląski) dial

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