Republicanism is a political ideology that preaches the republic as a social order of a state, that is, the necessity of its introduction in states that are monarchy in their order.
Proponents of republicanism are, as a rule, advocates of socialist and, less frequently, liberal ideas. As the main argument in favor of the abolition of the monarchy and the introduction of the republic, it is stated that the head of state (monarch) who comes to power through inheritance law is incompatible with modern ideals of equality of all citizens, and that the successor head of state does not suit anyone public.
Republicanism as a political ideology has its roots in ancient political practices based on Greek polises such as Athens and the Roman Republic. It existed as a recognizable movement in the Roman Republic, where the founder of the Republic, Lucius Junius Brutus, condemned the former Roman Empire and took a solemn oath to the Roman people that they would never allow the return of the monarchy. The emergence of European city-states in the Middle Ages gave it new impetus, only to take shape in the Enlightenment in response to the emergence of absolute monarchies, whose organization was increasingly contrary to the interests of the bourgeoisie and capitalism.
Republicanism took its most radical form in the 18th century during the French Revolution, when it became almost inseparable from the ideology of liberalism. However, the change of the then monarchies from absolute to constitutional, in which the monarchs had only a symbolic role, disappears the direct political impetus for republicanism.
On the other hand, republicanism in the 19th century began to mix with other ideologies such as nationalism, and later socialism, and its strongest current that will operate in the 20th century will be communism.
Connection with other ideologies
Socialist-minded republicans consider the monarchy incompatible with the ideals of equality, and the communists see the monarchy as a symbol of the old order, that is, the core of resistance to the dictatorship of the proletariat, which must therefore be removed.
Many nationalist movements have become republican, because, in their opinion, removing the hereditary monarch from the position of head of the nation-state would avoid any power.