Russian

Article

May 19, 2022

Russian (Russian: язык) is the official language of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and in the past was the language of international communication in the USSR. Apart from Russia, it is used in countries that were previously part of the USSR, as well as in areas with a compact population of emigrants from the countries of the former USSR, such as Israel, Germany, Canada, the United States, etc. - as the mother tongue of the population and as the language of international communication. In Israel, for example, according to the 1999 census, there are 750,000 emigrants from the USSR. Russian newspapers are published there, and Russian radio stations and television channels function. A number of those who know Russian are in Eastern Europe, where Russian was a compulsory subject in schools until recently. According to the Cambridge Encyclopedia of Languages, over 455 million people speak Russian as their first or second language. According to Language Monthly (№ 3 for 1997), about 285 million people worldwide speak Russian, making it the 4th most widely spoken language. Of these, about 160 million call it maternal (making it the 7th in the world). Russian is one of the 6 official languages ​​of the UN. In 1999, it was declared the fourth most influential language in the world.

History

Russian belongs to the eastern group of Slavic languages. It is believed that between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC. n. e. the Proto-Slavic dialect stood out from the Indo-European languages, which was transformed into the Proto-Slavic language during the 1st millennium; in the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries AD, it split into three groups: eastern, western and southern. Along with the basics of East Slavic (which is also called Old Russian, ie Old Russian in Russian, when it should be separated from the Russian language of the Moscow principality), modern Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian were created between the 14th and 15th centuries. Between the 16th and 17th centuries, northern and southern Russian dialects emerged, with a hybrid of Central Russian in the interspace. Centralization through radio and television reduces the difference between dialects, but only to a certain extent; the very pronunciations of the inhabitants of Moscow and St. Petersburg, the two largest cities, differ in emphasis. "Slovo o polku Igoreve" is among the most famous and oldest literary works, while "Povest vremennyh let" is among the most famous