A spacecraft

Article

August 11, 2022

A spacecraft is an object designed to perform various tasks in space, as well as on the surface of celestial bodies. According to whether there are people on them, they are divided into manned and unmanned aircraft. Unmanned aerial vehicles can operate automatically or with remote control, and the most common is a combination of these two methods (due to the distance from Earth, it takes a certain amount of time to receive information from flight control, so the aircraft remotely receives general instructions which it then carries out relatively autonomously). Spacecraft are used in telecommunications, Earth or space observation (for peacetime or military purposes), navigation, exploration of other planets, and recently also for space tourism. Spaceships are frequent actors in science fiction stories.

Division of Spacecraft

Spacecraft are divided into the following basic classes: artificial satellites spaceships - unmanned or piloted, for transporting materials or people into Earth's orbit; they can be intended for single or multiple use space stations - complexes for staying and maintaining experiments in space space probes - automatic interplanetary vehicles space capsules, intended for the soft landing of people or materials on the surface of the Earth and other celestial bodies planetary rovers, intended for researching other celestial bodies (primarily planets), directly from their surface

Spacecraft Subsystems

Depending on their purpose, spacecraft consist of different subsystems: Sustaining life Spacecraft intended for human habitation must also have life support systems, which take care of supplying the crew with oxygen, water, food, maintaining the optimal air temperature, etc. Also, it is necessary to ensure the possibility for normal performance of physiological functions. Oxygen delivery systems can be different. Pure oxygen (which caused the Apollo 1 fire) or a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen can be used. Oxygen delivery can be done through space suits, which was introduced after several incidents caused by the decompression of capsules for human stay.Altitude control Altitude control is needed to orient the aircraft correctly in space and to correctly