Holy Roman Empire


May 19, 2022

Holy Roman Empire (Lat. Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich; since 1512. Holy Roman Empire of the German people, Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Germanicae or Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Teutonicae, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Germany) , which existed from 962 to 1806, uniting many territories in Europe. During its greatest power, the empire included the territories of today's states: Germany, which represented its core, northern and central Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, as well as part of France. From 1134 it formally consisted of three kingdoms: Germany, Italy and Burgundy. From 1135, Bohemia was part of the empire, but its official status in the empire was finally resolved only in 1212. The empire was founded by East Frankish King Otto I in 962 and was seen as the successor to the Roman Empire and Frankish Charlemagne. The processes of changing the relationship of the central government with the subjects, within the empire, came with the trends of decentralization of power. Throughout its history, the empire has survived as a decentralized creation with a complex feudal hierarchical structure, uniting several hundred territorial-state creations. At the head of the empire was the emperor. The imperial title was not hereditary, and was awarded on the basis of the election of the prince's electors. The emperor's power was never absolute and was limited to the highest aristocracy of Germany, and since the end of the 15th century, the interests of the main layer of the empire have been represented in the Reichstag.


The term sacred in the name of the medieval Roman Empire has been in use since 1157 and the reign of Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. The name was added as an expression of Barbarossa's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy, before 1157 it was called simply the Roman Empire. , lat. Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nations Germanicæ). The French writer Voltaire remarked sarcastically:


The Holy Roman Empire was founded by Otto I, who was crowned "Roman emperor" in Rome in 962. In this name, the Roman state traditions were intentionally united with Christ