Ancient Egypt

Article

July 5, 2022

Ancient Egypt, also ancient Egypt and ancient Egypt, was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the area where the Arab Republic of Egypt is located today. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and united around 3100 BC. e. (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified as Narmer). Ancient Egyptian history unfolded as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as transition periods: the Old Kingdom during the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom during the Middle Bronze Age, and the New Kingdom during the Late Bronze Age. Egypt reached the height of its power during the New Kingdom, when it ruled most of Nubia and a significant part of the Middle East, followed by a period of gradual decline. Throughout its history, Egypt was attacked or conquered by numerous foreign powers, including the Hyksos, Libyans, Nubians, Assyrians, Achaemenids, and Macedonians under the command of Alexander the Great. The Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, created after Alexander's death, ruled Egypt until 30 BC. e., when, during the time of Cleopatra, it was conquered by the Roman Empire and became a Roman province. The success of the ancient Egyptian civilization was partly due to its ability to adapt agriculture to the conditions of the Nile river valley. Predictable floods and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced a surplus of crops, necessary for dense population as well as social and cultural development. Along with resource reserves, the administration sponsored the exploitation of minerals in the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of independent writing systems, the organization of collective building and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and an army aimed at asserting Egyptian dominance. The motivation and organization of these activities was carried out by a bureaucracy made up of elite scribes, religious leaders and administrators under the control of the pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in terms of an elaborate system of religious beliefs. Among the many achievements of ancient Egypt n�