August 11, 2022

Alat (Turkish: âlet) is the name for manual tools for work. Tools can be divided according to branches of industry into agricultural tools, forestry, locksmith, electrical, mining, surgical, etc., but it is difficult to draw a line between them, because the same tool can be used in various branches of industry. Although the term tool can easily be applied to many things that are a means to an end (eg, a fork), strictly speaking, an object is a tool only if, in addition to being constructed to be held, it is also made of a material that allows the user to apply to it different degrees of force. If repeated use wears out a part of a tool (such as a knife blade), it may be possible to restore that part; alternatively, a worn or broken tool must be replaced. A tool belongs to the taxonomic category of tools, and is in the same taxonomic rank as an instrument, utensil, device or dish. It is expedient to divide according to purpose. According to their purpose, we divide the tools into:


Anthropologists believe that the use of tools was an important step in human evolution. Given that tools are used extensively by humans and wild chimpanzees, it is widely assumed that the first routine use of tools occurred before the divergence between the two species. However, these early tools were probably made of unstable materials such as reeds or consisted of unmodified stones that were indistinguishable from other tool stones. The stone artifacts date back to about 2.5 million years ago. However, a 2010 study suggests that the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis ate meat by butchering animal carcasses with stone tools. This discovery pushes the earliest known use of stone tools among hominins to about 3.4 million years ago. Finds of actual tools date back at least 2.6 million years in Ethiopia. One of the earliest recognizable forms of stone tools is the hand axe. Until recently, excavated weapons were the only "early man" tools that were studied and given importance. More tools are now recognized as culturally and historically relevant. In addition to hunting, tools are needed for other activities such as those for food preparation, "... nut-cracking, skinning, harvesting and woodworking ..." This group also includes "flaky stone tools". Tools are the most important objects that ancient people used to climb to the top of the food chain; by improving tools, they were able to accomplish tasks beyond the capabilities of the human body, such as a spear or bow and arrow to kill prey, as their teeth were not sharp enough to pierce the skin of many animals. "Hunter man" as a catalyst for hominin change has been questioned. Based on bone traces at archaeological sites, it is now more evident that early humans vulturated the catches of other predators, rather than killing their own food. Mechanical devices experienced a major expansion in their use in ancient Greece and ancient Rome with the systematic use of new sources of energy, especially water wheels. Their use expanded during the Dark Ages with the addition of windmills. Machine tools caused a surge in the production of new tools during the Industrial Revolution. Proponents of nanotechnology expect the emergence of a similar wave with the reduction of tools to microscopic size.



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Selection of tool diameter by New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides