Carbon dioxide


January 27, 2022

Carbon dioxide or carbon (IV) oxide is an atmospheric natural gas consisting of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms joined by covalent bonds. The chemical formula of this gas is CO2. Under standard conditions of temperature and pressure, it is in a gaseous state. It is about 0.041% (by volume) of the Earth's atmosphere. It is part of the carbon cycle, and plants, algae and cyanobacteria use it in the process of photosynthesis (in the presence of water by sunlight) to produce carbohydrates, releasing oxygen as a byproduct. . However, since photosynthesis cannot take place in the dark, some of the plant's carbon dioxide is produced at night in the process of respiration. Humans and terrestrial animals expel it from the respiratory organs. It is emitted by volcanoes, geysers and hot springs and other places where the Earth's crust is thin. It is also released from carbonate rocks by dissolution. CO2 can be found in lakes at depths below sea level, and mixed with oil and natural gas. The impacts of carbon dioxide on the environment are of significant interest. Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, which warms the Earth's surface by reducing and preventing heat radiation into space. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is the basic source of carbon for life on Earth, and its concentration in the Earth's atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms since the late Precambrian. However, from the industrial revolution until today, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased rapidly due to the combustion of carbon (fossil) fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). The consequence of the increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is global warming and anthropogenic climate change. Carbon dioxide is the largest source of acidification of the ocean because when it dissolves in water, it produces carbonic acid, which is a weak acid and its ionization in water is incomplete (CO2 + H2O ⇔ H2CO3).


Under normal conditions, carbon dioxide is in a gaseous state. It is odorless, suffocating, non-flammable, heavier than air. With adiabatic expansion (spreading from high to atmospheric pressure), it partially becomes solid

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