January 21, 2022

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна) is a country in Eastern Europe. It was created in 1991, by separating the Ukrainian Socialist Republic from the Soviet Union. It borders Russia to the northeast and east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Azov to the south. The territory of today's Ukraine was the center of East Slavic culture in the Middle Ages, before it was divided between various powers, such as the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Austrian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The short period of independence (1917-1921) after the October Revolution of 1917 ended with the incorporation of Ukraine into the Soviet Union in 1922 (Ukrainian SSR). Ukraine's current borders were established in 1954, and gained independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The capital and largest city is Kiev with 2,967,400 inhabitants, it is the seat of the institutions of Ukraine and represents its political, administrative, economic, university and cultural center. Ukraine is a co-founder of the UN, GUAM, BSEC and other international organizations, in cooperation with the European Union.

Origin of the name

The word Ukraine is of Slavic origin and originally meant what we call the end, the country, the space, the region. Wild field is a traditional historical and medieval name. Ottoman was Jedisan. And Russian is Novorussia. Most probably the word comes from the Indo-European root * (s) krei- (separate, cut). Some linguists believe that the word can be interpreted as "the most remote area" or "border area", while others associate the word with "homeland" or "one's own country". The name Ukraine was first mentioned in 1187 in the Kiev Chronicle, in which the author writes about the death of the Pereyaslovsky prince. ("And all the people of Pereyaslav cried for him, and because of him Ukraine turned black.) Since then, the name will often appear in other chronicles, in which the word will mostly mean border countries that were opposed to the state center in Kiev. There is Kievan Russia, in that territory, which was ruled by the Mongols, Lithuania and Poland until the middle of the 17th century.

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