January 27, 2022
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (New York, January 30, 1882 - Worm Springs, April 12, 1945) was an American politician and the thirty-second President of the United States (1933-1945). The following example of his cousin Theodore Roosevelt entered politics, and he became an active member of the Democratic Party. In 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, who would become his advisor in the following years. He served in the New York Senate (1910-1913) and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1913-1920). The Democratic Party nominated him for vice president in the 1920 elections. The following year he contracted paralysis: although he could not walk, he remained active in politics. As the 44th governor of the state of New York (1929-1933), he founded the state agency for social assistance in the USA. In 1932, he won the Democratic presidential nomination with the help of James Farley and easily defeated President Herbert Hoover. In his inaugural address to a country with more than 13 million unemployed, he said that "the only thing we need to fear is fear itself." Congress approved most of the changes he sought in his New Agreement program in the first hundred terms. He was re-elected by a large majority in 1936, and his opponent was Alf Landon. In order to resolve the legal challenges posed by the New Agreement, he proposed an extension of the Supreme Court, but his plan to regulate ("Package") the court aroused great opposition and was rejected. By the end of the 1930s, the economic recovery had slowed, but Roosevelt was increasingly worried about the threat of war. For the third time, which was unprecedented at the time, he was elected in 1940, winning the election of Wendel Wilkie. He developed a loan and rental program to help American allies, especially the United Kingdom, in the early years of World War II. In 1941, he met with Winston Churchill to draft the Atlantic Charter. With the entry of the United States into the war, Roosevelt mobilized the military equipment industry and formed an alliance with Britain and the Soviet Union; met with Churchill and Joseph Stalin at the conference on war policy in Tehran (1943) and Yalta (1945). Despite his deteriorating health, he won a fourth term against Thomas Dewey (1944), but died soon after.