HIV

Article

October 19, 2021

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a lentivirus from the group of retroviruses, which by its action causes the ultimate syndrome known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV is an abbreviation of the English name human immunodeficiency virus, which would characterize this virus as the cause of the decline in the body's immune system. HIV most often targets parts of the immune system CD4 + lymphocytes. This virus directly and indirectly leads to a decline in the production of CD4 + T lymphocytes and to their ultimate destruction. CD4 + T lymphocytes are the main drivers of the defense system, and when the production of these cells is zero, the immune system hardly functions. HIV also directly attacks organs such as the kidneys, heart and brain, leading to kidney failure, cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Many of the problems sufferers of this virus face are common opportunistic diseases, such as the common cold, from which the immune system could defend itself under normal conditions. The five body fluids contain a sufficient concentration of the virus for a possible human infection. These are: blood, semen, preejacular fluid, vaginal secretions and breast milk. HIV is transmitted through body fluids during anal, vaginal and oral sex, through blood transfusions, through the reckless use of needles by addicts to intravenous drug use, through the placenta (between mother and fetus) and breastfeeding from mother to newborn. HIV originated in sub-Saharan Africa, discovered during the second half of the 20th century. Currently, this disease is a global epidemic. At the end of 2004, it was believed, according to existing data, that 40 million people had the HIV virus. The World Health Organization has confirmed that in the same year, 2004, 3 million more people became ill than in the previous year, and that in 2005, 5 million people will only get the virus. In 1983, scientists in France, led by Lika Montaner, were the first to discover the virus that causes AIDS. They called the LAV virus, lymphadenopathy-associated virus, which means that they initially associated the virus closely with the lymphatic system. That same year, Robert Gallo of the United States confirmed the existence of the virus and named it HTLV-III, the human T lymphotropic virus type III, because he discovered a link between CD4 + T cells and the virus. Both of us

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