Habsburgs

Article

May 28, 2022

The Habsburgs (plural: Habsburgs; adjective: Habsburgs; the term Habsburgs is used for members of this lineage, plural: Habsburgs) was one of the ruling houses (dynasties) of Europe: the Habsburgs ruled Austria (as dukes 1282-1453, archdukes 1453-1804). and emperors 1804—1918), were kings of Spain (1516—1700) and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire for several centuries until 1806. Their name comes from the Swiss castle Habichtsburg (Hawk's Castle), the seat of the family in the 12th and 13th centuries in Habsburg. Starting from southeastern Germany, the family expanded its influence and possessions to the eastern parts of the Holy Roman Empire, which roughly correspond to today's Austria (1278-1382). After only two or three generations, the Habsburgs managed to reach the imperial throne, which they will hold for centuries with short interruptions (1273-1291, 1298-1308, 1438-1740 and 1745-1806). After the abdication of Emperor Charles V, who was also King Charles I of Spain (1516-1556), the dynasty split into Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs. The Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in 1700, which caused the war for the Spanish heritage, while the Austrian Habsburgs became extinct in 1740, which caused the war for the Austrian heritage. One of the reasons for their disappearance is the large number of marriages within the family (incest), due to which many of them had a jaw defect, after them it was named the Habsburg jaw. An example is Don Carlos (Carlos of Asturias) who instead of 16 great-grandparents had only 6. The Habsburg proverb was "Let others fight, and you happy Austria get married!" (lat. Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube) Franz Ferdinand said about the problem of Habsburg weddings that "... husband and wife are often related 20 times, and the consequence is that half of the children are stupid or epileptic". Even then, fatal infections contributed to that; smallpox, which killed young offspring, stands out as the real reason. However, the heiress of the last Austrian Habsburg, Maria Theresa, married Franz Stefan, Duke of Loren, so their heirs continued the Habsburg tradition in Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Loren. The Holy Roman Empire disappeared in 1806, when the French Emperor Napoleon I reformed the government in Germany. Knowing that he would lose the title of Holy Roman Emperor, Franz II proclaimed himself the hereditary emperor of Austria and thus became Franz I. Car Fran