January 21, 2022

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), or the Netherlands, is a country in Western Europe and one of the four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (the other three are Aruba, Curaçao and St. Martin). It borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest. It shares a maritime border with Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany. The most important and largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam. Amsterdam is also the capital, while the seat of government and parliament is in The Hague. The port of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe, moreover, as large as the next three ports together, and from 1962 to 2004 it was the largest in the world. The Netherlands consists of 12 provinces in the European Netherlands, there are also three special municipalities in the Caribbean Netherlands - Boner, Saba and St. Eustace. The Netherlands is a lowland country, 50% of its land is less than one meter above sea level. This feature gave the Netherlands its name Nederland, translated as "Lowland Country". Most of the territory of the Netherlands that is below sea level is human work. Since the end of the 16th century, polders have been built by snatching land from the sea and draining lakes. Today they make up almost 17% of the country's surface. It is "known" as the land of tulips, windmills and wooden clogs. One of the characteristics of the Netherlands is its high population density, 407 per square kilometer. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger and more densely populated populations. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the second largest exporter of food and agricultural products in the world after the United States. Among other things, the great fertility of the soil and the mild climate contributed to that. The Netherlands is the third country in the world where citizens elected members of parliament in elections, and since 1848 it has been established as a unitary state with parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. Also, the Netherlands has a long history of social tolerance and is considered a liberal country. Abortion, prostitution and euthanasia are legalized, while the use of certain types of narcotics leads to a progressive policy. In 2001, the Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage. The Netherlands is one of the founders of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the G-10, NATO, the OECD and World Trade.

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