November 30, 2021
Czechoslovakia, or Czechoslovakia (Czech and Svk. Československo, Česko-Slovensko), is a former sovereign state in Central Europe, which existed from October 28, 1918, when independence was declared from Austria-Hungary, until the peaceful disintegration of the Czech Republic. and Slovakia, which was proclaimed on January 1, 1993. It was established in the fall of 1918, as a joint state of two peoples, the Czechs and the Slovaks, who were joined in 1919 by the Subcarpathian Ruthenians. From 1939 to 1945, due to the forced division and partial, and then complete occupation by Nazi Germany and its ally Hungary, the entire state was under foreign rule, but the government remained in exile and continued to operate. After the liberation, an agreement was concluded between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union on June 29, 1945, which transferred the territory of the former autonomous Subcarpathian Russia, ie Carpathian Ukraine, from Czechoslovakia to the Soviet Union. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Warsaw Pact and had a planned economy. The period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly halted when several Warsaw Pact countries invaded. Towards the end of the 1980s the end of the communist era across Europe, Czechoslovakia peacefully overthrew the government in the Plush Revolution; socialist price control was abolished after preparations were made. A few years later, the state was divided into two sovereign states, again peacefully.