November 30, 2021

Czechoslovakia, or Czechoslovakia (Czech and Svk. Československo, Česko-Slovensko), is a former sovereign state in Central Europe, which existed from October 28, 1918, when independence was declared from Austria-Hungary, until the peaceful disintegration of the Czech Republic. and Slovakia, which was proclaimed on January 1, 1993. It was established in the fall of 1918, as a joint state of two peoples, the Czechs and the Slovaks, who were joined in 1919 by the Subcarpathian Ruthenians. From 1939 to 1945, due to the forced division and partial, and then complete occupation by Nazi Germany and its ally Hungary, the entire state was under foreign rule, but the government remained in exile and continued to operate. After the liberation, an agreement was concluded between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union on June 29, 1945, which transferred the territory of the former autonomous Subcarpathian Russia, ie Carpathian Ukraine, from Czechoslovakia to the Soviet Union. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Warsaw Pact and had a planned economy. The period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly halted when several Warsaw Pact countries invaded. Towards the end of the 1980s the end of the communist era across Europe, Czechoslovakia peacefully overthrew the government in the Plush Revolution; socialist price control was abolished after preparations were made. A few years later, the state was divided into two sovereign states, again peacefully.

Basic characteristics

Country format: 1918–1938: Democratic Republic. 1938–1939: After the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with weak ties between the Czech, Slovak and Ruthenian parts. The wide belt of southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ukraine was surveyed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939–1945: The area is divided into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. The government-in-exile continued to operate in London, supported by the United Kingdom, the United States and other allies; after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, it was also recognized by the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia was one of the signatories of the United Nations Declaration, as well as the founder

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