Chess

Article

January 27, 2022

Chess (from Persian: شاه [šâh, shah] - king) is a board game for two players.

History of Chess

There is no reliable data on its origin. It is most likely that it appeared more than 2,000 years ago. During archeological excavations in Uzbekistan, two ivory figurines were found, which belong to the period of the reign of Emperor Huvi (II century). Experts believe that they are chess pieces. In the 5th century, a special type of war game on a wooden board was created in India - "chaturanga", which means four parts. Chaturanga, as a distant ancestor of today's chess, was a game that reflected the composition and order of the then Indian army, which consisted of 4 genera: infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots, and in the middle were Raja (King) and his advisor Mantrin (today's queen or lady). The movement of the pieces was determined by throwing the dice. The game was accepted by the Persians (chatrang) in the 6th century, and in the 7th century the Arabs took over from them by conquering Iran, and during the next two centuries it was very popular in Arab countries. Matches between the best players were held, possible openings (tabies) were studied and the first opening problems (mansube) were compiled. At the end of the 8th century, Caliph Harun al-Rashid sent ivory chess to the French ruler Charlemagne as a gift. In the 9th century, the Arabs transferred it to Spain under the name "shatranj", Shatranj is a higher form of chaturanga. The outcome of the fight is no longer determined by the case (rolling the dice), but by the logic and resourcefulness of the players. The game is gaining great popularity and is spreading across European countries all the way to Iceland. In 1254, King Louis IX of France issued a special edict banning the playing of chess. In Europe, chess was perfected by introducing castling and increasing the action of the queen and the hunter (with the Arabs, the queen could only go one square diagonally, and the hunter could jump diagonally to every third field: since it was difficult to report a checkmate, there were two ways to to be defeated - by the loneliness of the opposing king and the stalemate, which was counted as a victory for the patriotic side). With the reform, these two ways of victory were abolished. With the improvement of the ancient chattering, the game took on its present form. It was created in the 15th century, when in 1497 the first printed work on chess appeared, written by the Spanish chess player Lucena. His work was continued in the 16th and 17th centuries by the Spaniard Ru

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