Sweden (Swedish: Sverige listen), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige listen), is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast. In the southwest, the Oresund Bridge connects Sweden with Denmark. The country is surrounded by the Skagerrak in the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia in the east. The capital is Stockholm, which is also the largest city in Sweden.
The Scandinavian peninsula is inhabited by various peoples during the Stone Age. The region then progresses quite slowly. Sweden was first mentioned in the first century, when the Roman historian Tacitus noted that the Svevi lived on the east coast of Svealand. Svealand is the historical region after which Sweden was later named. In the tenth and tenth centuries, the Swedish Vikings spread their influence in the Baltic states and Russia. Unlike the Norwegian and Danish Vikings, the characteristic of the Swedes is that they were less belligerent and more focused on trade and colonization.
Sweden experienced Christianization in the 10th century. In the 14th century, like most other European countries, it was affected by the Great Plague, or the Black Death. In the Middle Ages, it extended its borders to Lapland in the north and Finland. Until 1809, Finland belonged to Sweden for almost 450 years. In 1389, the Kalmar Union was concluded, uniting Sweden with Norway and Denmark. The union was in force until 1521, when the Swedish King Gustaf I, after several wars, managed to form an independent state, which is considered the foundation of modern Sweden. Shortly afterwards, the same king rejected Roman Catholicism and introduced Sweden to the Protestant Reformation. Gustaf I is considered the father of the Swedish state.
During the 17th century, Sweden grew to become one of the most powerful European powers, as King Gustaf II Adolf successfully led the country through the Thirty Years' War. In the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden defeated Denmark. As a result, in 1814, Norway was forced to form a union with Sweden, in which it remained until 1905. Sweden has not participated in almost any war since 1814 (Sweden's neutrality in World War II is being discussed).
During the 1850s, many Swedes remained unemployed. The consequences are poverty, alcoholism and mass emigration. It is believed that between 1850 and 1910, more than a million Swedes left their homeland and settled in