Spain (Spanish: España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a southern European country located in the southwest of the continent on the Iberian Peninsula and several neighboring archipelagos and enclaves. It borders Portugal to the west and France and Andorra to the northeast. Exit to the Mediterranean Sea in the south and east and the Atlantic Ocean in the north and northwest, the European part of Gibraltar borders Spain. The capital is Madrid. Spain also includes two archipelagos: the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta and Melilla (two enclaves in the North African continent with the status of autonomous cities), as well as Libya (enclaves in the French Pyrenees), also belong to the Spanish state.
Spain is a member of the United Nations, the European Union and NATO.
The countries and territories with which Spain borders are: Andorra, Portugal, Morocco, Gibraltar and France. The area of the state is 505,990 km².
Spain is located in the temperate zone, between 43 ° 47'24 "and 36 ° 00'40" north latitude, and between 7 ° 00'29 "east longitude and 5 ° 36'40" west longitude.
Geology and relief
The oldest part of Spain is the 600-800 m high Mezeta plateau, which is built of Precambrian and crystalline rocks and old limestone. In the north it is surrounded by the young rugged Cantabrian Mountains and the Pyrenees (Pico de Anneti, 3,404 m), and in the south by the Andalusian Mountains or the Beti Cordilleras, which are built of Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits.
The Andalusian mountains consist of several massifs, which run parallel to the Mediterranean coast: the central part of the Sierra Nevada (Sierra Nevada) with the highest peak in Spain (Mulasen, 3,481m). Between the southern edge of the Sierra Morena and the Andalusian Mountains lies the great Andalusian tectonic depression. On the northeastern edge of Mezeta, there are the Iberian Mountains, built of Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits, and between them, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, lies the valley of the river Ebro (Hragona Basin). From the Mezeta plateau rise the Sierra de Gata, Sierra de Gredos and Sierra de Guadarrama massifs, which were formed by the Tertiary fault. The coast is mostly steep and weak