October 1 (October 1) is the 274th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (275th in leap years). There are 91 days remaining until the end of the year.
331. p. n. e. - In the battle of Gavgamela, Alexander the Great defeated the Persian emperor Darius III.
1777 - A treaty is signed in San Ildefonso between Spain and Portugal.
1910 - Japan annexes Korea and joins the Empire of Japan.
1914 - Turkey, an ally of the Central Powers in World War I, closes the Dardanelles to Entente ships.
1918 - Led by British Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, known as Lawrence of Arabia, the Arabs, with the help of the British, take Damascus from the Turks in World War I.
1926 - A market on the Green Wreath is opened in Belgrade.
1928 - The First Five-Year Plan is proclaimed in the USSR, a five-year plan for the development of industry and the continuation of the collectivization of agriculture.
1938 - A German army enters Czechoslovakia and occupies the Sudetenland following Germany's Munich Agreement with Britain and France.
1943 - Allies capture Naples after a month-long battle in World War II.
1946 - A military court in Nuremberg finds 22 Nazi German leaders guilty of war crimes committed in World War II. Twelve of them were sentenced to death, three received life imprisonment, and the rest were sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison.
1949 - The People's Republic of China is proclaimed.
1979 - A Panama Canal zone is formally handed over to Panama after 70 years of US control.
1982 - Helmut Kohl, leader of the Christian Democratic Union, becomes the sixth chancellor of West Germany, succeeding the Social Democrat Helmut Schmidt.
1988 - Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev becomes President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in place of Andrei Gromik, who retired the day before. The creator of political and economic reforms, Gorbachev was the last leader of the Soviet Union.
1989 - Denmark becomes the first country in the world to allow gay marriage.
1996 - The United Nations Security Council lifts economic sanctions on Yugoslavia imposed in May 1992 for its involvement in the war in Bosnia.
1997 - Police brutally disperse peaceful demonstrations by Albanian students in Pristina and five other cities in Kosovo. The students demanded a return to university institutions and classes in Albanian.
1999 - Russian forces enter Chechnya