January 12 is the twelfth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 353 days (354 in leap years) remain in the year after this day.
475 - Byzantine Emperor Zeno is forced to flee his capital, Constantinople, and his general Vasilisk gains control of the empire.
812 - Envoys of the Byzantine Emperor Michael I of Rangabe make peace in Aachen with the Frankish Emperor Charlemagne, after more than a decade of war between Byzantium and the Frankish Empire. One of the causes of the war was Charles' coronation in Rome in 800 as the Holy Roman Emperor, a title claimed by Constantinople. This agreement had very serious consequences for all Serbian countries - they are divided by the border line between the two empires, which will eventually become the border of Eastern and Western Christianity.
1528 - Swedish King Gustav I is crowned King of Sweden, who has ruled since his election in June 1523.
1554 - Bainaung, of the Toungu dynasty, continues to win over the surrounding states to his empire, becoming the largest empire in Southeast Asian history, and was crowned King of Burma in 1954.
1616 - Portuguese Captain Francisco Caldeira Castello Branco founds the city of Belem in Brazil on the Amazon Delta.
1848 - Palermo revolts against the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Sicily.
1866 - The Royal Air Force is founded in London.
1872 - Johannes IV is crowned Emperor of Ethiopia in Axum, the first royal coronation in the city in more than 200 years.
1873 - The dinar is introduced in Serbia as a monetary unit, which eliminates the monetary chaos and the use of more than 40 types of other people's coins - ducats, forints, thalers, sequins and others.
1879 - A war breaks out between the British and the Zulu tribe in South Africa.
1894 - Japanese troops invade Korea.
1906 - The Customs War between the Kingdom of Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy begins
1915 - The first plane made entirely of metal, designed by German Hugo Junkers, takes off.
World War I: Oswald Boelcke and Mac Imelmann received the highest military award of the German Empire for eight air victories over Allied planes, Pour le Merite, as the first German airmen to deserve it.
World War I: In the operational diary