November 16 (November 16) is the 320th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (321st in leap years). There are 45 more days until the end of the year.
1095 - At a church council in Clermont, France, Pope Urban II calls on church dignitaries and secular rulers to wage a religious war against the Seljuk Turkish tribe, which has taken over the Holy Land in Palestine. Thus began the era of the Crusades.
1532 - Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro captures the city of Cajamarca in Peru with only 200 troops and executes the Inca emperor Atahualpa, although a large ransom is paid for him.
1912 - The Battle of Bitola begins in the First Balkan War, in which the Serbian army defeated the Turkish Vardar army of Zeki Pasha on November 18.
1914 - The Battle of Kolubara begins, the largest fought by the Serbian army in the First World War. The battle ended on December 15 with the victory of the Serbian army over the Austro-Hungarian troops under the command of General Pojorek, who was forced to withdraw from Serbia. General Zivojin Misic had exceptional merits for the victory in the battle, in which about 43,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers were captured.
1918 - After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in the First World War, Hungary is declared an independent republic.
1933 - The Soviet Union and the United States establish diplomatic relations.
1941 - A German offensive against Moscow begins in World War II, culminating in the defeat of the German army on December 5. Continuing operations, the Soviet Red Army repulsed German troops 200 kilometers from Moscow by March 1942. This German defeat marked the end of the "blitzkrieg" and signaled a reversal of the war in favor of the anti-Hitler coalition.
1965 - The Soviet Union launches the Venus III spacecraft, which arrives on Venus in March 1966, as the first spacecraft to land on another planet.
1970 - Pakistan officially announces that the number of dead in the cyclone and the huge waves that have swept the coasts of East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and the islands of the Bay of Bengal has reached half a million.
1972 - Three American astronauts begin their 84-day flight on the Skylab 4 spacecraft.
1979 - Opening of the Bucharest Metro.
1988 - Benazir Bhutto is elected Prime Minister of Pakistan.
1991 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin signs a series of decrees transferring power over the economy from the Soviet center.