January 18 is the eighteenth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 347 days (348 in leap years) remain in the year after this day.
350 - Roman military leader Magnentius overthrows the legitimate emperor Constance I.
470 - Minor Leo II ascends the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) throne.
532 - A small imperial army led by Belisarius defeats the uprising of Nike in Constantinople. Victory over the insurgents permanently strengthened the regime of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I.
1520 - King of Denmark and Norway Christian II defeats the Swedes and conquers Sweden.
1535 - Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founds Lima, now the capital of Peru.
1654 - The leader of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, Hetman Bogdan Khmelnytsky, recognizes the supreme authority of the Russian Tsar, which unites Ukraine with Russia, which provoked the Russo-Polish War (1654-67).
1778 - English navigator James Cook discovers Hawaii, naming the Sandwich Islands after Lord Sandwich.
1788 - 736 convicts expelled from England land in Botany Bay, forming Australia's first penal colony.
1871 - King Wilhelm I of Prussia is proclaimed the first emperor of the newly formed German Empire in the Palace of Mirrors in Versailles.
1896 - The first public demonstration of X-rays.
1919 - French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau opens the Versailles Peace Conference after the end of World War I.
1944 - After seven days of fighting, Soviet troops end the blockade of Leningrad in World War II, killing about 620,000 people from exhaustion and starvation during the German siege of September 1941.
1963 - The Protectorate of South Arabia is founded.
1974 - After seven days of negotiations, Egypt and Israel sign an agreement to disarm troops along the Suez Canal.
1977 - A plane crash near Sarajevo kills SFR Prime Minister Dzemal Bijedic, his wife Razija and six other passengers.
1977 - Australia's worst rail accident kills about 80 people when a Sydney train hits a concrete bridge.
1989 - For the fourth day in a row, thousands of Czechoslovaks flock to Prague's central Wenceslas Square, singing "Freedom", "Truth" and "Human Rights" in a peaceful protest against the communist authorities.
1991 - Jordan's parliament condemns airstrikes on Iraq