1878 was a simple year.
January 31 - The Serbian army liberates Vranje in the Second Serbian-Turkish War, after 422 years of Ottoman occupation.
February 20 - Leo XIII succeeds Pius IX as the 256th pope.
March 3 - With the signing of the Peace of San Stefano, the Russo-Turkish war ended and the creation of Greater Bulgaria as a principality of the Ottoman Empire was planned.
July 13 - The Berlin Congress ends, giving Serbia, Romania and Montenegro independence, Austria-Hungary the right to occupy Ottoman Bosnia, and Bulgaria autonomy within the Ottoman Empire.
January 12 - Ferenc Molnar, American-Hungarian writer
February 5 - Andre Citroen, French engineer
February 23 - Kazimir Malevich, Russian painter
March 31 - Jack Johnson, American boxer
May 10 - Gustav Strezemann, German politician
June 5 - Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary
August 16 - Isidor Bajic, Serbian composer
August 27 - Peter Wrangel, Russian general
August 19 - Manuel Quezon, Filipino politician
August 31 - Frank Jarvis, American athlete
September 2 - Werner von Blomberg, German Fed Marshal
October 12 - Karl Buresch, Austrian politician. († 1936)
October 15 - Paul Raynaud, French politician
November 17 - Lisa Meitner, Austrian physicist. († 1968).
November 23 - Ernest King, US Admiral
December 18 - Joseph Stalin, Soviet politician
January 9 - Vittorio Emanuele II, King of Italy
January 12 - Lazar Mamula, Austro-Hungarian general
January 18 - Antoine César Becquerel, French physicist
February 7 - Pius IX, Pope of Rome
February 10 - Claude Bernard, French physician
March 20 - Julius von Meyer, German physician and physicist
May 13 - Joseph Henry, American physicist
June 12 - George V, King of Hanover
July 25 - Milica Stojadinović Serbian woman, Serbian poet (* 1830)
September 5 - Jevrem Markovic, Serbian socialist
October 18 - Ilija Milosavljevic Kolarac, Serbian endowment holder
November 16 - Đura Ja�