19th century


May 19, 2022

The 19th century began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900.


Slavery abolished in most western countries. The decline of the Ottoman Empire continues: the independence of Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria. The struggle for Latin American independence led to the creation of independent states on the territory of the former Spanish and Portuguese empires in Latin America. The American-Mexican War and the American Civil War, the expansion of the United States to the west. The beginning of industrialization, first in England, later in continental Europe as well as in North America. Unification of Germany and Italy. The new system of the Austrian kingdom and greater independence of the Hungarians within Austro-Hungary The European settlement of Australia and the beginning of the colonization of Africa. Colonization of some parts of Asia (India, Siberia, Southeast Asia).


1800: The Royal Society of Surgeons of England is proclaimed the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 1800: The beginning of America's second great awakening. 1801: The Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merge to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 1801: Maharaja Ranjit Singh is crowned King of the Sikh Empire in Punjab. 1801–1815: Berber War between the United States and the Berber States. 1803: The acquisition of Louisiana and the beginning of the expansion of the United States into the Pacific. 1803: First Saudi state conquers Mecca while waiting for various shrines to be destroyed. 1804: Haiti gains independence and becomes the first black republic. 1804: Francis I establishes the Austrian Empire. 1804–1810: Fulani War in Nigeria. 1804–1813: The first Serbian uprising. 1805–1848: Muhammad Ali of Egypt modernizes Egypt. 1806: Holy Roman Empire ceases to exist by decision of the Luneville Peace. 1807: The Kingdom of Great Britain declares the slave trade illegal. 1808–1809: Russia takes over Finks from Sweden in the Finnish War. 1808–1814: Spanish guerrillas in the Spanish War of Independence. 1809: Napoleon disbands the Teutonic Order.


1810: The University of Berlin is founded, the world's first research university. Among his students were Hegel, Marx, and Bismarck. This reform of the German University proved so successful that the model was followed around the world. 1810s-20s: Most Latin American colonies free themselves from the rule of the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire after