December 19


January 20, 2022

December 19 (December 19) is the 353rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (354th in leap years). There are 12 more days until the end of the year.


1154 - Henry II is crowned at Westminster Abbey as the first English king of the Plantagenet dynasty. 1793 - Napoleon Bonaparte wins his first major battle, ending the British siege of Toulon. 1842 - US recognizes Hawaii's independence, but American influence remains dominant. The Hawaiian Islands were annexed in 1898, and on August 31, 1959, they became the 50th state in the United States. 1863 - English inventor Frederick Walton patents a linoleum floor covering in London. 1905 - Prince Nikola Petrović-Njegoš passed the St. Nicholas Constitution, the first constitution of Montenegro, which constituted the state as a constitutional monarchy. 1920 - Constantine I returns to the Greek throne after the death of his son Alexander I and a referendum. 1941 - Three divers on human torpedoes of the Italian Navy detonate magnetic mines on British ships in Alexandria, disabling two battleships. 1941 - After a failed offensive on Moscow, Adolf Hitler replaces Field Marshal Walter von Brauchitsch, commander of German ground troops, and personally takes command of the army. 1944 - Podgorica is liberated in World War II. 1946 - The First Indochina War begins when Vietnamese attack French colonial troops in Hanoi. 1950 - NATO appoints US General Dwight Eisenhower Commander-in-Chief of NATO forces in Europe. 1958 - For the first time in the world, US President Dwight Eisenhower sends Christmas cards via satellite. 1965 - With 54.5 percent of the vote, Charles de Gaulle wins Francois Mitterrand's French presidential election. 1971 - The film Hell's Orange, directed by Stanley Kubrick, premieres in London. 1972 - The South Korean tanker "South Star" dropped more than one hundred thousand tons of oil near Oman. The capsule of the Apollo 17 spacecraft landed in the Pacific Ocean. This ended the American program of "Apollo" flights to the moon with a human crew. 1984 - British and Chinese Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and Zhao Qiang sign an agreement in Beijing under which Hong Kong falls under Chinese sovereignty on July 1, 1997, after 99 years of British rule. 1986 - Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev liberates the Soviet Union

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