2nd millennium


May 19, 2022

The 2nd millennium is the millennium, ie the period that began on January 1, 1001 (new era) and ended on December 31, 2000. In most historical periodizations, it includes the developed and late Middle Ages, the New Age and the so-called modern age.


The 2nd millennium is characterized by demographic, economic, political and cultural changes that surpassed the changes in earlier periods of written history in their speed and far-reaching nature, and which intensified in their speed before the end of the period, ie in the 20th century. This phenomenon is usually explained by the development of technology, especially in the areas called the Western world. In the first centuries, the Eastern Hemisphere was dominated by Islamic, Indian and Chinese civilizations, so that the crisis of European society and civilization (partly caused by the Black Death epidemic and partly by the effects of the so-called Little Ice Age) prompted a re-examination of the feudal system that is, the beginning of the renaissance and the creation of the beginnings of the capitalist system. The introduction of the scientific method encouraged the development and spread of technology, either transport, which enabled European researchers and later countries to create the first permanent connections with the Western Hemisphere in the Age of Discovery and begin colonizing, and the invention of the printing press allowed new ideas to spread faster. Organized into rival states on a national basis, Europe gained an economic and military advantage over other regions thanks to the industrial revolution, which was disrupted only thanks to the world wars in the 20th century, when technology also for the first time led to the possibility of destroying humanity in nuclear war. The world's population doubled in the first seven centuries of the 2nd millennium (from 310 million in 1000 to about 600 million in 1700), and increased tenfold in the next three centuries (6 billion in 2000). In the second millennium, two great wars took place in human history - the First World War, which lasted from 1914 to 1918. It was attended by most of the world's great powers, grouped into two conflicting alliances: the Allies (gathered around the Triple Entente) and the Central Powers. More than 70 million people were under arms, of which over 60 million people in Europe would be