January 3 is the third day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 362 days (363 in leap years) remain in the year after this day.
1777 - American War of Independence: US forces under General George Washington defeat the British Army at the Battle of Princeton under General Lord Cornwallis.
1781 - British troops occupy the Dutch Caribbean island of St. Eustace after several shots are fired.
1795 - After the defeat of the uprising of Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Prussia, Austria and Russia sign a secret treaty on the third partition of Poland.
1815 - Austria, Britain and France form a military alliance against Prussia and Russia.
1868 - The shogun institution is abolished in Japan, limiting the emperor's power since 1192 and concentrating power in the hands of the shogun, a representative of the great feudal lords - and the Meiji dynasty comes to power. The end of the shogunate had the significance of the bourgeois revolution - Emperor Mutsuhito implemented reforms, abolished many privileges of feudal lords, modernized the army, reformed education and established institutions on the European model, which enabled a strong industrial rise of Japan.
1871 - Franco-Prussian War: At the Battle of Bapaume, General Luis Faidherbe's forces lead to the Prussian withdrawal.
The Law on the Organization of the Army of King Milan Obrenović was passed. Article 19 of the Law states: "No Serbian citizen can become a clerk or a state teacher, priest or monk, if he has not served in the permanent staff, either full or short, and is fit for service."
A new army formation was also introduced in that law. The previous corps and corps territories were abolished and divisional areas were formed instead. Based on mobilization and operational needs, the territory of Serbia is divided into five divisional areas: Timok, Moravia, Drina, Danube, and Sumadija.
1885 - Franco-Chinese War: Battle of Ni Bop begins
1895 - The Belgrade Stock Exchange begins operations.
1919 - At the Paris Peace Conference, Emir Faisal I signs an agreement with Zionist leader Haim Weizmann to establish a Jewish state in Palestine and an Arab state in much of the Middle East.
1921 - Turkish peace with Armenia
1924 - English Egyptologist Howard Carter in the Valley of the Kings near Luxor in Eg