November 30, 2021
November 8 (November 8) is the 312nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (313th in leap years). There are 53 more days until the end of the year.
960 - Battle of Andrasos: The Byzantines, under the command of Leo Phocas the Younger, defeat Hamdanid, Emir of Aleppo, Saif al-Dawlu.
1519 - Spanish conqueror Hernan Cortes arrives in Mexico, where the Aztecs and their ruler Montezuma II, believing him to be the reincarnation of the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl, receive him in Tenochtitlan with the greatest honors.
1520 - A massacre of more than 80 Swedish priests and nobles is carried out by order of King Christian II of Denmark. The "Stockholm bloodshed" instigated an uprising which, under the leadership of Gustav Vasa in 1521, liberated Sweden from Danish rule.
1576 - Eighty Years' War: The Peace of Hent: The class assemblies of the Netherlands meet and unite to oppose the Spanish occupation.
1602 - The Bodleian Library at Oxford University is opened to the public.
1620 - The Battle of White Mountain, the first battle of the Thirty Years' War, takes place near Prague.
1793 - The Louvre is opened to the public for the first time, the castle of the French kings from 1204, which was turned into a museum by a decision of the revolutionary government in 1791.
1805 - Smederevo dizdar Muharem Guša Bošnjak handed over the keys to the city to the leader of the First Serbian Uprising, Karađorđe. With that act, Smederevo became one of the first Serbian towns that Karadjordj liberated from the Turks.
1858 - After defeating the Turkish army at Grahovo, Montenegro gains internationally established borders with the Ottoman Empire, guaranteed by great powers - Russia, Austria, France and Prussia.
1889 - Montana becomes the 41st state in the United States.
1895 - German physicist Wilhelm Konrad Rendgen discovers X-rays, which are named X-rays. For this invention he received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physics.
1901 - Riots over the Gospel: bloody conflicts take place in Athens after the translation of the Gospels into Demotic Greek.
1917 - A council of people's commissars is established as Russia's new government, headed by Lenin. Leo Trotsky became commissioner for foreign affairs, and Stalin commissioner for nationalities.
1923 - An attempt by Adolf Hitler to stage a beer coup with General Erich Ludendorff is prevented in Munich. The Nazi leader was arrested four days later and sentenced to five years in prison, but in late 1924 a�