October 8 (October 8) is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). There are 84 days remaining until the end of the year.
316 - The Roman emperor Licinius is defeated at the battle of Cibala by his co-ruler Constantine.
451 - The Council of Chalcedon begins its session, condemning Eutychus' doctrine of Monophysitism and adopting the Chalcedon symbol of faith.
1789 - Austrian troops under Field Marshal Ernst Gideon von Laudin conquer Belgrade from the Turks after a weeks-long siege.
1856 - Britain begins the Second Opium War against China, in which France joins. When Anglo-French troops occupied Canton in 1857, China capitulated and signed peace in Tianjin.
1871 - A large fire breaks out in Chicago, according to legend, in a barn when a cow kicks a kerosene lamp to a pile of straw and sawdust. The fire, which lasted for three days, killed about 300 people and left about 90,000 homeless.
1912 - Montenegro declares war on Turkey and attacks Turkish positions near Shkodra on the same day, beginning the First Balkan War.
1953 - Britain and the United States withdraw their troops from the Free Territory of Trieste and hand over civilian administration in zone "A" to Italy. This caused a crisis in Yugoslav-Italian relations, which was resolved by the London Agreement on October 5, 1955.
1954 - North Vietnamese forces enter the capital, Hanoi.
1970 - Russian writer Alexander Isaevich Solzhenitsyn receives the Nobel Prize for Literature.
1975 - Fierce clashes in Beirut and northern Lebanon claim at least 25 lives and break the last truce between the warring Christians and Muslims.
1991 - After a three-month Brioni moratorium, Slovenia and Croatia reaffirm their independence from Yugoslavia.
1992 - A chess tournament begins in Tilburg, the Netherlands.
1993 - The United Nations lifts sanctions on South Africa imposed in 1960 over its apartheid policies.
1998 - NATO Council adopts "detailed operational plan for phased air strikes" in Kosovo. Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic was given 24 hours to meet the requirements of the UN resolution. The Government of Serbia passed the Decree on special measures in the conditions of NATO's armed threats.
1999 - Inaugural ceremony