July 9


August 11, 2022

July 9 (7/9) is the 190th day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar (191st in a leap year). There are 175 days left until the end of the year.


1386 — In the Battle of Zempach, the Swiss canton alliance defeated the much superior army of Leopold III of Habsburg. This battle is recorded in the history of warfare as the first victory of infantry over cavalry. 1519 — The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés landed on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, where he founded the city of Veracruz and began the conquest of Mexico, which ended in 1521 with the destruction of the Aztec Empire. 1609 — The Roman-German Emperor Rudolph II, in order to win over the Czech Protestants, issued a charter on freedom of religion in the Czech Republic. 1686 — The Augsburg Alliance was formed between the German-Roman Emperor Leopold I, Spain, Sweden, Holland and Saxony against the French King Louis XIV. 1701 - Battle of Carpi between Austrian and French forces. The first battle of the War of the Spanish Succession and the Austrian victory. 1746 — The French fleet arrived in the territory of Pondicherry in India, which then became a French possession. It was returned to India in 1954. 1762 — The Russian Emperor Peter III Fyodorovich Romanov abdicated, a few months after assuming the throne. The Tsar was then arrested and killed on the orders of his wife, the future Empress Catherine II Alekseevna, known as Catherine the Great. 1810 — Napoleon Bonaparte annexed the Netherlands. 1816 — The independence of the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata (Argentina) from Spain was proclaimed at the Congress in Tucumán. 1877 — The first tennis tournament was held in Wimbledon. 1913 — The Battle of Bregalnica in the Second Balkan War ended with the victory of the Serbian army over the Bulgarian troops. The battle began on June 30, when Bulgarian troops attacked the Serbian and Greek armies in Macedonia, allies in the fight against Turkey, without declaring war. 1922 — American swimmer, later movie actor ("Tarzan") Johnny Weissmiller became the first swimmer to swim 100 m in less than one minute (58.6 seconds). 1940 — Naval Battle of Calabria. 1944 — World War II American forces occupy the Pacific island of Saipan, one of Japan's largest naval bases. 1944 — British and Canadian troops took over the city of Caen in Normandy from the Germans in World War II, after heavy bombing and month-long battles. 1960 — Soviet leader Ni�