Article

November 30, 2021

The illicit drug trade, also known as the drug business in the broadest sense, encompasses the entire activity of producing and distributing psychotropic substances (drugs) in a manner prohibited by law or international conventions. In a narrower sense, this means the activity of production and distribution of drugs, which are usually intended for users who use them for recreational reasons (entertainment) or addiction. Illegal drug trafficking can take various forms, from the simplest ones - e.g. individuals who grow hemp stalks to produce marijuana from it for personal use - to extremely complex ones involving different but interconnected criminal organizations operating in different parts of the world and specializing in different segments of the business - from raw material producers (growers poppy or coca), drug producers, smugglers, and even direct dissectors, whose activity is colloquially called dealing. Although efforts to ban or restrict the production and distribution of various substances, including drugs, can be found in different countries and different periods of history, and with them the smuggling and illegal trade in these substances, the first significant examples are more recent. was among the first imperial China, which from the 18th century under the rule of the Jing dynasty sought to prevent the consumption of opium among its subjects. In the Western world, drugs began to be traded illegally after certain countries began to regulate the pharmaceutical and drug industries from the middle of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. The rapid development of the illegal drug trade was recorded in the 20th century, which is explained by the consequences of the Second World War, which made many veterans addicted to opiates (painkillers) or amphetamines (used to maintain combat readiness), and countercultural trends. among the post-war so-called baby boomer generation popularized recreational drug use. In both cases, a mass market for organized drug traffickers has been created in the Western world. The 2005 World Drug Report, produced by the United Nations Department on Drugs and Crime, estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at $ 321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of $ 36 trillion in the same year, the illicit drug trade can be estimated at almost 1% of total global trade. The consumption of illegal drugs is widespread in the world and it is still very difficult for local authorities to oppose their popularity.

History

Chinese authorities issued orders against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800. The West began banning addictive drugs during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, the illegal drug trade appeared in China. As a result, by 1838, the number of Chinese opium addicts had risen to between four and twelve million. The Chinese government responded by ordering a ban on opium imports; this led to the First Opium War (1839-1842) between Great Britain and the Chinese Jing dynasty. Britain won and forced China to allow British traders to sell Indian opium. The opium trade was lucrative, and smoking became common for the Chinese in the 19th century, and British traders increased trade with the Chinese. The Second Opium War broke out in 1856, and this time the British joined the French. After two opium wars, the British Crown, with the Nanking (1842) and Tianjin (1858) agreements, obliged the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium, which they confiscated and destroyed, which they called "reparations". In 1868, as a result of increased opium use, Great Britain restricted the sale of opium in Britain by enforcing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, opium control remained under the control of individual s

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