Immunodeficiency

Article

October 18, 2021

Immunodeficiency is a condition of the human body in which the immune system (one or a combination of some of its components: cellular immunity, humoral immunity, complement composition, phagocytes) is insufficient or weakened in the fight against infections. Immunodeficiency can be acquired or secondary, and primary or hereditary. Primary immunodeficiency Primary immunodeficiencies are a group of rare diseases that are inherited, and the cause is within the immune system. About 80 types of primary inherited immunodeficiencies are currently known. Primary immune deficiency can occur due to: B-lymphocyte deficiency (X-linked agammaglobuminemia, IgA and IgG deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia in children) T-lymphocyte deficiency (chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, NK cell deficiency, idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia). In cases where both B and T lymphocytes are missing, there is a lack of adenosine deaminase, reticular dysgenesis and some forms of dwarf growth. phagocytosis disorders (cell movement defects, microbicidal activity defects) complement disorders (complement component defects, control protein defects) Secondary immunodeficiency Secondary immunodeficiencies occur as a consequence of causes outside the immune system, occur more often than primary ones, and can be caused by malnutrition, aging, drugs (eg chemotherapy, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressive drugs) or diseases that can directly or indirectly affect the immune system. , lymphoma, multiple myeloma). The most well-known secondary immunodeficiency is that caused by the HIV virus, AIDS.

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