The rose family (lat. Rosaceae) is one of the richest and most geographically widespread plant families. There are about 3,000 - 4,000 plant species that belong to this family, and according to some sources 4,828 species classified in 91 genera. Due to the great economic importance of plants of this family, man has spread their areas to the entire planet. This family consists of many diverse plants in many characteristics. Their diversity can be seen starting from the life form (herbaceous annuals and perennials, shrubs and trees are present). Their flowers are usually large, with 5 calyx and corolla leaves and a large number of anthers.
In addition to great diversity, it is almost impossible to define this family and its differences from other families. Some basic characteristics that separate it are the presence of valves, often serrated leaves, a large number of anthers, nectaria that are well developed on the hypancia and at the base of pistils and anthers, the existence of 1-2 beautiful cellular seeds per locus, the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in many representatives. ..
The Rosaceae family has been shown to be a clearly monophyletic group in studies of DNA sequence variability in latent semen.
Rosaceae are divided into four subfamilies:
Maloideae. The basic taxonomic criterion for this division is the type of fruit. Thus, the representatives of the subfamily Rosoideae have the fruit nut (achenia), in the subfamily Spiraeoideae there is a sage, in the Amygdaloideae there is a stone, and in the Maloideae a pomum. Some authors have additional criteria for isolating subfamilies (basic number of chromosomes, phytochemical characters). This traditional division into subfamilies has undergone significant changes after biochemical and molecular phylogenetic and systematic research.
Phylogenetic relationships within the family
Within the family Rosaceae, 8 larger groups (logs) stand out today, some of which correspond to the previously described subfamilies. These groups are:
Rosoideae s. p.
Maloideae s.l. The phylogenetic relationships between these groups are only partially elucidated. The most primitive group is the subfamily Rosoideae (in the narrow sense), which differs from the rest of the family in basic �