January 18, 2022
Archbishop (from Greek αρχή, arche, "original", "first", and επισκοπος, episcopos, "supervisor", "foreman"; sometimes abbreviated ÄB) is a bishop with a higher rank than the other bishops in a certain area or a certain Church. The title of archbishop is normally attached to an archdiocese. The title of archbishop occurs within the Roman Catholic Church as well as some of the Orthodox and Protestant churches. If the archbishop has subordinate bishops (so-called suffragans or suffragan bishops), then this archbishop in, among others, the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Church is called a metropolitan. Such a metropolitan archbishop may also have subordinate archbishops for historical reasons (former metropolitans or an ordinary bishop who has been given a higher rank historically without becoming a metropolitan). The area with the diocese of subordinate bishops, including the archdiocese of the metropolitan area, is called the church province or province. Sometimes an archbishop can be independent of other archbishops but still lack subordinate bishops, such as the archbishop of Strasbourg who reports directly to the pope and not to another archbishop or to the French primate in Lyon (called the "gallant primate" since 1079). It was not until after 1988, however, that the Diocese of Strasbourg became an archdiocese. Another example of a Catholic diocese with a bishop who is not subject to an ordinary archbishop is Stockholm's Catholic diocese, which is also directly under the pope. An archbishop is a bishop who is primus inter pares - mainly among those of the same rank - and has no direct jurisdiction over other bishops, but has certain duties and rights over the other bishops. In principle, there is no higher office than that of the bishop within the Christian Church. Correspondingly, Catholic and Orthodox patriarchs are in principle equal, although the bishop of Rome, the pope, is primus inter pares; that is at least the Eastern Church's attitude to the papacy. The Archbishopric was established at the First Council of Nicaea (325). This was caused by the fact that the pins had become many and in some cases large (although by today's standards they were relatively limited in scope).